Glossary of Terms
Service Provider :(ISP) Organization or company that offers the
general population the ability to connect to computer network (consisting
of a Router, DNS Server) via dial up, idsl, isdn, or cable, that is
connected to the internet. ISP may offer e-mail services as well as a
start page, domain hosting and DNS Services Your PC (if Microsoft Windows
98 or higher operating systems are installed) has all the necessary
software (clients) native with in the operating system to experience the
internet in its entirety.
Online Service: (i.e. AOL MSN
Earthlink) also considered to be an ISP. They may offer other specialized
“members only” content. However they are known to filter or control what
you maybe able to see on the internet. Generally the Specialized Client
(Software) you must install on your computer may degrade the operation of
your PC and cause many conflicts with other programs installed.
Destination (Web Site hosting company or Hosting company):
Unlike the ISP these companies specialize in storing and routing your
websites for the Internet as well as offer development services.
Outsourcing: the practice of
subcontracting work to outside persons, companies or organizations
Expert: having, involving, or displaying
special skill or knowledge derived from experience or training
Consultant: one who gives professional
advice or services : EXPERT
Solution: 1 a: an action or process of
solving a problem b : an answer to a problem : EXPLANATION; specifically :
a set of values of the variables that satisfies an equation
Telecommute: to work at home by the use
of an electronic linkup with a central office (i.e. Telephone, FAX, LAN,
WAN or Internet)
Development: the act, process, or result
Design: to create, fashion, execute, or
construct according to plan: DEVISE, CONTRIVE, DEVELOP
Media: a medium of cultivation, conveyance, or
Multimedia: using, involving, or
encompassing several media
Graphic design: the art or profession
of using design elements (as typography and images) to convey information
or create an effect
Photograph: a picture or likeness obtained
Photography: the art or process of
producing images on a sensitized surface (as a film) by the action of
radiant energy and especially light
Digitalization: of or relating to data
in the form of numerical digits
Digital Scan: the art or process of duplicating a photograph,
document or object and converting to data in the form of numeric digits.
Digital Image: results of
Digitalization or Digital scan that can be translated by a computer
Digital Photography: the art or
process of producing digital images by the action of radiant energy and
Desktop Publishing: the production
of printed matter by means of a desktop computer having a layout program
that integrates text and graphics
publishing in which information is distributed by means of a computer
network or is produced in a format for use with a computer
Host: a computer that is used for storage of
files or records to be served
1. assigned private IP numbers via LAN
2. assigned public IP number/s via the internet.
Local area network (LAN): a
network of personal computers in a small area (as an office) that are
linked by cable, can communicate directly with other devices in the
network, and can share resources
Wide area network (WAN): a
network of personal computers in multiple or several areas (as an home
office, satellite offices, telecommuters) that are linked by cable, phone
lines or fiber optic cables can communicate directly with other devices in
the network, and can share resources
IP (Also known as an IP
number): (in this case Public numbers), it is a code made up of
numbers separated by 4 dots that identifies a particular computer on the
Internet. Every computer, whether it be a web server or the computer
you're using right now, requires an IP address to connect to the Internet.
(Private IP numbers for LAN are not translatable globally, used behind
firewalls and routed out to the internet with the use of a NAT server)
ICANN: (The Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers): coordinates the stable operation of the Internet's
root server system. Allowing DNS Servers to Translate Domain Name to IP
ICANN Registrar: an organization
authorized to register your domain name. Most are renewable annually.
Domain (Name): The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain
Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left
is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A
given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name
points to only one machine
Internet (World Wide Web, Information Super
Highway): an electronic communications network that connects computer
networks and organizational computer facilities around the world
DNS Server (host): Stands for "Domain Name
Space." The primary purpose of DNS is to keep Web surfers sane. Without
DNS, we'd have to remember the IP address of every site we wanted to
visit, as opposed to just the name.
All domain registrations need to have 2 registered DNS Servers, we
will park yours to "coming soon" or Under construction page
For those who have a web server and no registered DNS Server, Let us point
it for you!
Mail Sever (host): a computer with
specific software and configuration connected to the network that handles
the flow of messages to a specified domain. Could have as many as 4
elements available to its users for the internet; mail relay (smtp), Post
Office Boxes (POP3) and a graphical web interface (this leaves the mail on
the mail server and does not download to your PC). As well as IMAP
services. A single mail server may handle the mail for one domain or many.
Mail Client: Specific software that can
be installed on your PC to send and receive e-mail from the Mail Server.
Thus allowing the mail to be downloaded and stored on your local PC.(i.e.
Outlook, Outlook Express, Eudora)
Web Server (host): a computer with
specific software and configuration connected to the network that handles
the storage of documents (that have been composed in a specific computer
languagei.e. html, dhtml, xtml, asp) and fulfills (serves) requests for
these documents to users (clients) of the internet.
A single Web server may handle one or many domains on the internet.
Web Client (Browser): The software on your
PC that allows you to view the destinations on the inernet. (i.e.
Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mosaic, Lynx, AOL, MSN)
Website: 1. a destination on the Information Super Highway (World
Wide Web). 2. a graphical / informational presence of an organization or
company available to the world via the internet.
Master: being or relating to a master: as in
being SKILLED, PROFICIENT
Administrator (Hostmaster): a person
that is responsible for the maintaining of the specific host or group of
hosts pertaining to the internet
Sysop: the administrator of a computer bulletin
board, computer or system (network) of computers connected to the
Webmaster: This is the person that is
responsible for not only the development (in so far as the basic
structure, directories, storage and flow) and graphical design but also
should be the one that takes care of any “maintenance” of the website. i.e
broken links , out of date information.
Website Elements: The following are
things that must be achieved for a website to be “seen” and communicated
within a normal fashion.
Domain name registration with an ICAAN Registrar.
The ability to develop, create or design browser viewable documents.
Documents (pages) must be stored on a Web server that has public IP
E-mail server be on a public IP Number
Must have the host and mx records created in 2 registered DNS servers
Cookie(s): The most common meaning of
"Cookie" on the Internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web
Server to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and
to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests
from the Server.
Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browsers' settings, the
Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie for
either a short time or a long time.
Cookies might contain information such as login or registration
information, online "shopping cart" information, user preferences, etc.
When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie,
the Server is able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For
example, the Server might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep
a log of particular users' requests.
Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and
are usually saved in memory until the Browser software is closed down, at
which time they may be saved to disk if their "expire time" has not been
reached. Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life story to
the CIA, but they can be used to gather more information about a user than
would be possible without them.
However it is almost impossible to fill out an online form with out them
or set preferences at your favorite sites.
PopUp, PopOver, PopUnder(s) Advertisements:
These annoying little pages that compete for the space on your desktop can
easily be stopped. However I recommend that you do not try to
install many of the “zappers”,” eliminators”, “Stoppers” or “Busters” as
they will also disable a lot of what makes your internet browser work!
Many even start compiling a your cookies and sending the information to
the same marketers that are hitting you with SPAM, So it is my
opinion to click them away or not to visit the offending sites.
Spam (or Spamming): An inappropriate attempt to
use a mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility
as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same
message to a large number of people who didn’t ask for it. The term
probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word
spam repeated over and over. The term may also have come from someone’s
low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally
perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam® is a
registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat
Types of Virus Infection
When you listen to the news, you hear about many different forms of
electronic infection. The most common are:
• Viruses - A virus is a small piece of software that piggybacks on real
programs. For example, a virus might attach itself to a program such as a
spreadsheet program. Each time the spreadsheet program runs, the virus
runs, too, and it has the chance to reproduce (by attaching to other
programs) or wreak havoc.
• E-mail viruses - An e-mail virus moves around in e-mail messages, and
usually replicates itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of
people in the victim's e-mail address book.
• Worms - A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks
and security holes to replicate itself. A copy of the worm scans the
network for another machine that has a specific security hole. It copies
itself to the new machine using the security hole, and then starts
replicating from there, as well.
• Trojan horses - A Trojan horse is simply a computer program. The program
claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage
when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). Trojan horses have no way
to replicate automatically.
An Ounce of Prevention
You can protect yourself against viruses with a few simple steps:
If you are truly worried about traditional (as opposed to e-mail) viruses,
you should be running a secure operating system like UNIX or Windows NT.
You never hear about viruses on these operating systems because the
security features keep viruses (and unwanted human visitors) away from
your hard disk.
If you are using an unsecured operating system, then buying virus
protection software is a nice safeguard.
If you simply avoid programs from unknown sources (like the Internet), and
instead stick with commercial software purchased on CDs, you eliminate
almost all of the risk from traditional viruses. In addition, you should
disable floppy disk booting -- most computers now allow you to do this,
and that will eliminate the risk of a boot sector virus coming in from a
floppy disk accidentally left in the drive.
You should make sure that Macro Virus Protection is enabled in all
Microsoft applications, and you should NEVER run macros in a document
unless you know what they do. There is seldom a good reason to add macros
to a document, so avoiding all macros is a great policy.
In the case of the ILOVEYOU e-mail virus, the only defense is a personal
discipline. You should never double-click on an attachment that contains
an executable that arrives as an e-mail attachment. Attachments that come
in as Word files (.DOC), spreadsheets (.XLS), images (.GIF and .JPG),
etc., are data files and they can do no damage (noting the macro virus
problem in Word and Excel documents mentioned above). A file with an
extension like EXE, COM or VBS is an executable, and an executable can do
any sort of damage it wants. Once you run it, you have given it permission
to do anything on your machine. The only defense is to never run
executables that arrive via e-mail.
By following those simple steps, you can remain virus free.